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Ammonia Refrigeration
NCDOL Alliance
Ammonia Refrigeration Level I
(Operator I)

Course Description:
This course provides students with an overview of the foundational skills necessary to observe refrigeration operations, record pertinent operation parameters and take control actions under direct supervision of a supervisor or operational level personnel.  The course introduces and explains process safety information as related to  ammonia, industrial ammonia refrigeration fundamentals, the refrigeration cycle, the properties of refrigerants, saturated refrigeration tables,  refrigeration compressor types, operation and maintenance of compressors,  lubrication, evaporators and cooling units, condensers and high pressure receivers, and purging.  Upon completion, students will have an understanding of the basic theory, and good operating practices concerned with industrial ammonia refrigeration systems.

Learning Objectives:
The student will be able to identify and explain the basic principles of an industrial ammonia refrigeration system,  demonstrate   an understanding of the terms and concepts used to describe industrial   ammonia refrigeration systems; recognize the major components of an ammonia refrigeration system and have a working knowledge of the OSHA Process Safety Management program as related to industrial ammonia refrigeration.

Outline:

A. Process Safety Management

  1. Discuss the purposes of  Process Safety Management (PSM);
  2. Describe the fourteen elements that make up PSM;
  3. Review the steps involved in developing a PSM plan;
  4. Discuss process hazard analysis (PHAs) as related to ammonia;
  5. Determine requirements for standard operating procedures (SOPs) for normal repair and maintenance;
  6. Discuss contractor responsibilities for PSM;
  7. Discuss management of change (MOCs) procedures.

B. Fundamentals

  1. Explain the difference between sensible heat and latent heat;
  2. Explain the relationship between force and pressure;
  3. Explain the difference between heat energy and temperature;
  4. Describe the condition of refrigerant liquids and vapors in terms of heat, temperature, and pressure;
  5. Discuss the duties of the refrigeration operator/technician;
  6. Use sensible heat and latent heat formulas to calculate refrigeration loads.

C. The Refrigeration Cycle

  1. Explain the steps in the refrigeration cycle;
  2. Discuss system factors affecting the refrigeration cycle;
  3. Understand the state of refrigerant at different key points in the cycle;
  4. Be able to use the terms: evaporating pressure, condensing pressure and temperature, discharge pressure, and temperature, suction pressure and temperature, saturated liquid or vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapor when discussing the state of refrigerant at key points in the cycle;
  5. Identify and draw a basic mechanical refrigeration system with the four basic components.

D.  Properties of Refrigerants  

  1. Explain how a particular refrigerant is selected over the dozens that are available;
  2. Define some important terms used and provide a better understanding of a refrigerant’s performance throughout the mechanical refrigeration cycle;
  3. Explain important safety, environmental and legal considerations in the operation and maintenance of industrial refrigeration systems;
  4. Calculate refrigeration rates, flow rates, volume, and weight using specific volume, refrigerating effect, and mass flow rate for a particular refrigerant.

E.  Saturated Refrigeration Tables 

  1. Read pressures and temperatures from a pressure/temperature table;
  2. Explain how the refrigerant tables can help in analyzing system performance;
  3. Use the refrigeration tables in analyzing system performance..

F.  Refrigeration Compressor Types

  1.  Describe the functions and types of compressors in refrigeration systems;
  2. Compare methods used to accomplish compression and the different approaches to capacity control;
  3. Discuss operating limits for the various styles of compressors;
  4. Understand differences between booster compressors and high stage compressors.

G. Operation and Maintenance of Compressors  

  1. Explain duties and responsibilities of the operator;
  2. Discuss safe procedures for starting, maintaining, and operating a safe and efficient refrigeration system.

HLubrication

  1. Discuss the functions of lubricating oil in a refrigeration system
  2. Explain precautions required when storing refrigeration system lubricating oil
  3. Explain the lubrication systems used on different types of compressors
  4. Discuss methods of separating lubrication oil and refrigerants
  5. Explain why low vapor pressure is important in a refrigeration system lubricating oil;
  6. Understand the importance of , and dangers associated with draining oil.

I. Evaporators/Cooling Units

  1. Discuss evaporator configuration for various types of cooling;
  2. Explain the function of a secondary coolant;
  3. Explain coil defrost;
  4. Discuss service and maintenance of evaporators.

J. Condensers and High Pressure Receivers

  1. Explain the condensing process;
  2. Discuss the three major types of condensers;
  3. Discuss service and maintenance of condensers;
  4. Discuss high pressure receiver functions and types;
  5. Discuss wet bulb temperature vs. dry bulb temperature.

K. Purging

  1. Explain the problems associated with non-condensable gasses;
  2. Discuss the sources of non-condensable gasses;
  3. Discuss the operation of various types of purgers.

CEU’s: Four (4) CEUs for the course.  Note: CEUs are calculated at 1 CEU per 10 hours of class.

Prerequisites: None.



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